The key to helping any person is to be able to relate to them in a manner that is satisfying and gratifying. This is an enormous task for not only must you have some basic understanding of their worldview (their beliefs about themselves, of other people including what they believe other people believe about them, and their expectations for the future; you must also know thyself. People perceive what they expect to perceive: angry people expect to see offense, etc. Too often we supply the very fodder to assure people with problems in living that they are right to be angry, anxious, or sad. Use these concepts as a means of expanding your own thinking: develop a ‘beginner’s mind’. Nothing is quite as it seems – can you allow the process of change to develop?
Universal Prevention Strategies – These strategies target the general population group that has not been identified on the basis of individual risk. Because universal programs are positive, proactive, and provided independent of risk status, their potential for stigmatizing participants is minimized and they may be more readily accepted and adopted.
Structure is not organization. All organizational elements are, or must be, interrelated. Presently we have a belief that atypical behavior is caused by deficit or pathology. Although systems may be integrated structurally, they have no related context – what is the educational, protective or corrections role with atypical clients in this context? They are required to separate clients between the pathological and the otherwise if they are to function.
While CBM upholds the behaviorist notion that response consequences mediate behavior, it contends that behavior is largely regulated antecedently through cognitive processes – the major of which are appraisals, attributions and expectations. The content used in these processes are the beliefs, schema and attitudes held in the cognitive structures – particularly schema beliefs about self, others and future prospects. Therefore, response consequences of a behavior are used to form expectations of behavioral outcomes. It is the ability to form these expectations that give humans the capability to predict the outcomes of their behavior, before the behavior is performed.
Creating a decision support system for the creation of a plan of change is not a trivial task. One either must decide to create options for every possible occurrence, or determine some way of grouping the possible convergence of issues in a manner that will provide sufficient direction. We are loath to attempt to identify and label all possible individual human problems in living into the same kinds of categories used by the biomedical and psychodynamic practitioners, since we believe that such labels are rarely helpful and often harmful.
Present service delivery technologies and processes are not only ineffective, they are destructive.
BASIC COGNITIVE CONCEPTS
• Cognition drives behavior
• Cognitive states can be modified
• Modified cognitive states modify behavior
• Behavior is reinforced by the ecosystem
• The individual and the environment are interactively influential
• The only behavior an individual person can control is his or her own
This article lays out principles for School Psychologist in assessing and serving children with problems in living.
The cognitive issues of both the target child and the target child managers should be identified. Additionally, the assessor needs to specifically distinguish between trait-cognitions – relatively stable, generalized beliefs about self, others and future prospects – and state-cognitions momentary beliefs about future performance in specific situations. Finally, the assessor might want to consider the emotional context of significant learning experiences.
A short dissertation on the nature of intervention with people with problems in living.
This article examines ways that schools can develop services and support for students with problems in living as a means of enhancing social competence.