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If the human service system is really a system, what are its goals and outcome expectations and how are they measured? This examines some of the pitfalls of the traditional system of providing services to people with problems in living.
Changing a human service system is a process of developing clarity between beginning points and outcomes and developing new problem solving solutions to bridge the gap between the two. The intent here is not to develop all of the specific steps of that solution process, but rather to identify some of the salient components of a transformational system. The most single characteristic of a human service delivery system is the quality of its personnel.
Values are held at three levels: as ideals which may never be reached but are what is what we hope for; as goals which we will work towards with the expectation that some day we will get there, and as commitments which means that every person is working on these values NOW! Often values are not held as commitments by staff even though they are held as commitments by organizations. This is sometimes due to the vague manner in which they are articulated.
We will examine coherence as it applies to the development of a systematic connectedness based on the development and implementation of social policy in regard to the management of the delivery of human services. It is our hypothesis that the inability of government to steer [set precise goals both for direction and measurement of accomplishment]; and to learn [identify discrepancies between goals and outcomes and design new alternatives to more optimally meet those goals] has left our society with a human services network which marches toward oblivion with very good intentions. We further suggest that the conflict of explicit [that which is stated] and implicit [that which is intended] social policy along with the fallout lack of consistent patterns of values and incongruous sets of ideological principles, results in real harm being done to people with problems in living.
Managers often look askance at philosophy as though it were a “frill” and not an essential. They feel, perhaps, that results oriented people are pragmatic, not philosophical. Unfortunately, no organization can reach right results without a clear definition of its own summum bonum, (life’s greatest good). This process is important, not only to the field of human services, but also to the process by which people with problems in living seek coherence.
Planning is essentially a process of collecting information which will enable one to make decision about some future point or goal. When one talks about planning in the context of human services one needs to collect a great deal of information from diverse fields; reach consensus about the relevance of that information to groups and individuals; and make decisions about various components of systems regarding the best possible strategies and tactics to meet an agreed upon mission.
Human service managers today are intrigued by outcomes. It is a fad that is given a great deal of “lip service” but often without merit. The reason for this is that we so often measure outcomes without a standard. “I want to do what’s best for kids.” What a wonderful thought. Shouldn’t we all be this caring? However, people who use this as a mantra often believe that ‘what is best for kids is’ something that people who believe in social learning theory would feel is very negative for kids. Until we decide what is best for kids, we have no means of measuring outcome nor making decisions about management performance.
Managing people in an organization has certain congruence with managing people with problems in living. In both cases, there is a requirement to get the personal preferences of the individuals involved compatible with a specific, defined set of assumptions which the manager believes will be beneficial to both the individual and the organization or society. And in both cases, the critical assumption underlying the need for change is that the learning environment [culture] has somehow created and maintained thoughts that are now considered to be incompatible with the desired culture.
This article examines ways that schools can develop services and support for students with problems in living as a means of enhancing social competence.
In making the shift from traditional models of serving people with problems in living to a transitional model dedicated to the use of cognitive behavioral management, one is required to look at the full range of organizational elements which have been identified by Robert B. Waterman, Jr., Thomas J. Peters and Julian Phillips in a 1990 article called Structure Is Not Organization.
Reality techniques focus on changing both the inner attitudes and the overt behaviors of students through discipline, a warm teacher-student relationship, and questioning procedures.
The goal and activities of the Individual Behavior Learning Packets are focused on a proactive instructional approach to behavior management as proposed by Colvin, Kameenui and Sugai. This focus conceptualizes the…
Cognitive modeling is one of the techniques based on cognitive behavior management, which involves the manipulation of antecedents (before response of the student) and consequences (after response of the student) to change both overt…
The bias in attributions is that we tend to blame our failures on external forces, but see the failure of others as internal. This bias leads to the hostile attributions that are seen in many children in school.
Assertive discipline is a systematic approach to behavior management that requires that teachers set the rules, maintain a balance between positive and negative consequences, and be assertive in their verbal communication to make their wants and needs known to the students, parents, and principals.
A competency enhancement group run by Reach First edition - January 2001 CCIU - Assessment & Clinical Services This outline is adapted from Chapter 5, Anger Control Groups by Matthew McKay, PhD. Which appears in the book Focal Group Psychotherapy, Edited by Matthew...
If I am not for myself, who will be for me? But if I am for myself alone, what am I? And if not now, when? Hillel A competency enhancement group run by Reach First edition - January 2000 CCIU - Assessment & Clinical Services This outline is developed using material...
Paralysis of the will is a striking feature of depression, indicating the underlying hopelessness. Helplessness is the psychological state that frequently results when events are uncontrollable. An event is uncontrollable when we can’t do anything about it; when nothing we do matters. The two crucial concepts are voluntary response and response-outcome independence; these two concepts are intimately related.
Dependency affects the lives of many people. Labeled as co-dependence, it can be defined as “a specific condition that is characterized by preoccupation and extreme dependence (emotionally, socially, and sometimes physically) on a person or object. Eventually, this dependence on another person becomes a condition that affects the person in all other relationships.” Co-dependency hinders marriages, friendships and healthy family functioning. It erodes trust and the ability to have honest and open communication. It blunts a person’s feelings and impedes his/her judgment about reality.
Reducing the dangerous tendency of assessment will require a shift from power-based structures and practices to relationship-based structures and practice; which itself is supportive of a change from a deficit model, in which the beneficent outside power rescues an individual from weaknesses, to a capacity building model, in which individuals rescue themselves based on their own strengths and relationships in the community.
DOUBLE BINDS and OTHER MALADJUSTMENTS The classical approach is to view the person with severe and persistent problems in living in isolation from his/her environment. It is assumed that s/he is out of touch with ‘reality’. Those who adhere to this perspective suggest...
Note that the client decides what is distressing and what needs to be changed. Cognitive change is ALWAYS self-change. The helper becomes a person who enables the client to address these issues and helps them maintain an objective balance, but the client must decide.
Perception differs qualitatively from the physical properties of the stimulus. The nervous system extracts only certain information from the natural world. We perceive fluctuations of air pressure not as pressure waves but as sounds that we hear. We perceive...
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